For the individual owning the car, It is very high. When we take the societal costs into consideration, it is even higher.
This paper by Gössling et al. in Ecological Economics, 2022 was really eye-opening. Over 50 years, the total lifetime cost of ownership of a "cheap" car will reach 600,000 EUR, out of which almost a third is effectively a subsidy from society to the car's owner. If you are considering owning your own car, I strongly recommend to at least skim this paper (CC license, HTML and PDF freely available).
Another paper (Mattioli et al., Energy Research & Social Science, 2020), this is one is a review that considers our car dependence from a systems of provision approach. Quite interesting if you want to learn more about the of the political-economic underpinnings of car dependence (CC license, HTML and PDF freely available).
The Gössling paper generated some news items across the web, for example
FoldFold allExpandExpand allAre you sure you want to delete this link?Are you sure you want to delete this tag?
The personal, minimalist, super-fast, database free, bookmarking service by the Shaarli community